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Barney, Robert K. David E. Barney. "Get Those Niggers Off the Field: Racial Integration and the Real Curse in the History of the Boston Red Sox." NINE: A Journal of Baseball History and Culture. Vol. 16, Issue 1. 2006. Pgs. 1-5.

Bell, James "Cool Papa." "How to Score From First on a Sacrifice." American Heritage. August 1970.

Chenier, Robert P. Moses Fleetwood Walker: Ohio's Own "Jackie Robinson." Northwest Ohio Quarterly, Vol. 66, No. 1. Pgs. 34-49.

Goldstein, Richard. Sam Jethroe is Dead at 83: Was Oldest Rookie of the Year. New York Times Obituary Section. June 19, 2001. New York Times Article.

Heaphy, Leslie A. The Negro Leagues: 1869-1960. McFarland and Company. London. 2003.

Holway, John B. Blackball Stars: Negro League Pioneers. Meckler Books. Westport, CT. 1988.

Lester, Larry. Black Baseball's National Showcase: The East-West All-Star Game, 1933-1953. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln, NE. 2001.

Moffi, Larry and Jonathan Kronstadt. Crossing the Line: Black Major Leaguers, 1947-1959. University of Iowa Press. Iowa City, IA. 1994.

Peterson, Robert. Only the Ball was White: A History of Legendary Black Players and All-Black Professional Teams. Oxford University

Ribowsky, Mark. A Complete History of the Negro Leagues: 1884-1955. Birch Lane Press. New York. 1995.

Stout, Glenn. Tryout and Fallout: Race, Jackie Robinson, and the Red Sox. Massachusetts Historical Review. Vol. 6. 2004. P. 11-39.

Walter, Scott. Walking the Line: Moses Fleetwood Walker and Race in America. Thesis (M.A.)--Bowling Green State University, 1995.

Zang, David. Fleet Walker's Divided Heart. University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln, NE. 1995.

Online Resources

Archival material, including photographs, used courtesy of the Negro Leagues e-Museum. Accessed online at


Floyd, Barbara. Chewing Tobacco, Meat Packers, Hamburger Chains, and Automobile Dealerships: Early Professional Basketball in Toledo. Northwest Ohio Quarterly. Vol. 75, No. 1.

William Jones Papers, UM 90. The Ward M. Canaday Center for Special Collections. The University of Toledo.

Stark, Douglas. Paving the Way: A History of Integration of African Americans into Professional Basketball. Basketball Digest. Feb 2001.


Burn, Ken. Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson. PBS Documentary. 2005.

Considine, Bob and Bill Slocum. Dempsey By the Man Himself. Simon and Schuster. New York. 1960.

Fleisher, Nat. Jack Dempsey. Arlington House. New Rochelle, NY. 1972.

Roberts, James and Alexander G. Skutt. The Boxing Register: The International Boxing Hall of Fame Official Record Book. McBook Press. Ithaca, NY. 1997.